During the period of pregnancy, diet must be taken in a balanced quantity and also rich in calories, vitamins, minerals and proteins. The needs of a pregnant woman are found to be different in three semesters. In homo sapiens (human beings) the period of gestation is approximately 40 weeks assessed from the last menstrual cycle of a mother.
Energy needs of the body
The body needs more energy and the needs can be taken from various forms up to 300 kcals per day. An additional calorie diet is suggested in a trimester wise below.In first trimester from 1 to 12 weeks, 10 kcals of diet should be taken in a day.
In the second trimester from 13 to 27 weeks, 90 kcals are necessary per day.
In the third period of trimester 27 to 40 weeks, 200 kcals per day are required.
Needs of calories by the body
The above explained calories are required to fulfill the necessities of the growing fetus as well as the mother to increase the quantity of fat stored in the body. Those fats function as stock during the time of lactation or in time of any need of it. During the pregnancy period, it is compulsory to gain 10-14 kg of weight considerably.
In diet, there must be additional 15 gms/day of protein to be taken. You find good and whole quality of proteins in milk, eggs, meat and cheese and also in pulses, legumes, whole grains and nuts also helps in giving proteins to the body.
Additional fat is not required as the fetal organs have already much of fat in them. Apart from this essential fatty acids (EFA) should be concentrated to take in the pregnancy period.
Deficiency of minerals
The deficiency of essential minerals may give chance to difficulties and complications and also can have severe effects on the fetus infant during the time of pregnancy. It is necessary to take calcium, phosphorous, zinc, sodium, Iodine and Iron kind of supplements during pregnancy period.
Special role of vitamins
Vitamins are the important nutrients that take a special place and play a chief role in the physiological state of mother and also the on the fetus. The vitamins which are important are:
- Vitamin A, which improves vision and maintains the integrity of cells.
- Vitamin D is important for absorbing maternal calcium and also producing energy and growth to the infant by calcium.
- Vitamin E is more necessary as it helps in prevention of abortions.
- Vitamin K is helpful in preventing the neonatal hemorrhages.
- Vitamin B6 or folic acid is most chief nutrient to stop macro cystic anemia and to allow normal growth of fetus as it prevents the serious defects of birth.
Constipation is the most common problem faced that is faced by woman kind during the pregnancy period. There must be lot of fibers in diet in the form of fruits, vegetables whole grains, cereals, whole pulses and vegetable soups.
Water is the most required nutrient that keeps the body hydrated, prevents from constipation hemorrhoids, edema and flushes out the toxins that are produced in the body.